Vinegar processes

Vinegar is part of the human diet since thousands of years and at the same time has a variety of other uses such as domestic, medical and industrial.

In the biological production of vinegar, acetic acid is derived from ethanol using acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter). Naturally Acetobacter lives on the surface of fruits together with yeasts. The ethanol produced by the yeast cells is oxidized by the acetic acid bacteria using the oxygen from the surrounding air.  To produce vinegar in liquid form, oxygen has to be distributed to the bacterial cell. In modern vinegar production units aerators (turbines) are used to introduce fine air bubbles into a fermentation tank (Fermenter / Acetator) to allow the strictly aerobic bacteria to survive in a submerged culture.

Besides traditional methods, today there are two major processes used in vinegar production technology:

  • Semi-batch process (single stage or dual stage) for vinegar production with up to 15% acidity
  • Fed-batch process (single stage or dual stage) for vinegar production with more than 20% acidity

Semi-Batch

Single Stage
Dual Stage
Red Wine, White Wine, Cider, Rice Wine etc.
Mash
Fermentation
Discharge
Filtration
Storage Tank
Road Tanker or Bottles

Semi-batch (up to 15% acidity)

The Semi-Batch-Process for the production of wine / cider / fruit / alcohol vinegar is a fermentation process at which 1/3 of the fermentation liquid is discharged when reaching a residual alcohol content of ~0,3% and replaced by charging fresh mash.

    More:

    Red Wine, White Wine, Cider, Rice Wine etc.
    Mash
    Fermentation
    Discharge
    Filtration
    Storage Tank
    Road Tanker or Bottles

    Semi-batch dual stage

    The Semi-batch dual stage vinegar production process offers the possibility to hand over the product to a second, slightly smaller fermenter wherein it can be further processed up to a residual alcohol content of 0,0%.

    More:

    Fed-Batch

    Single Stage
    Dual Stage
    Alcohol
    Water / Nutrition
    Fermentation
    Discharge
    Filtration
    Storage Tank
    Road Tanker or Bottles

    Fed-batch (more than 20% acidity)

    The Fed-Batch-Process for the production of alcohol vinegar is a fermentation process at which 2/3 of the fermentation liquid is discharged when reaching a residual alcohol content of ~0,3%. Afterwards the discharged volume is replaced by slowly recharging the respective raw materials. In contrast to the semi-batch process, during the ongoing batch, alcohol and nutrients are apportioned in a certain quantity so that the total concentration increases slowly up to >20%.

    More:

    Alcohol
    Water / Nutrition
    Fermentation
    Discharge
    Filtration
    Storage Tank
    Road Tanker or Bottles

    Fed-batch dual stage

    The Fed-batch dual stage vinegar production process offers the possibility to hand over the product to a second, slightly smaller fermenter wherein it can be further processed up to a residual alcohol content of 0,0%.

    More:

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